Common Cancers

Here are a list of common cancers in Singapore, find out more about the symptoms and diagnosis for each of them.

Both Men and Women

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is also called colon cancer, and is the cancer of the colon and rectum caused by polyps that grow and become cancerous. Located at the lower part of your digestive system, colorectal polyps usually start as non-cancerous benign or tissue growth on the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Not all of these polyps develop into cancer. Colorectal cancer presents itself due to factors like genetics, lifestyle, age and diseases like diabetes.
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Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the cancer of the lung and is a condition where a malignant tumour is present in the tissues of the lungs. The lungs are located on either side of the chest and receive oxygen from the air when we breathe and transfers it into the bloodstream. They also transfer the carbon dioxide in our body to the atmosphere when we exhale. Most lung cancer cases are caused by long-term tobacco smoking. Lung cancer may also be determined by genetic factors and exposure to various chemicals and air pollution.
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Lymphoma is a cancer of the white blood cells. Also called lymphocytes, these cells are part of the immune system. Abnormality in the lymphocytes causes them to grow uncontrollably, which leads to the development of tumors. As a result, these cells are no longer able to perform their actual role of protecting the body from disease and infection.
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Skin Cancer (Non-Melanoma Skin)

Skin cancer is the cancer of the skin. The skin is the body’s largest organ and protects it against sunlight, heat, injury, and infection. It also helps control body temperature and has several layers. The two main layers are the upper or outer layer called the epidermis, and the lower or inner layer called the dermis. The epidermis is made up of three kinds of cells, the squamous cells, basal cells, and melanocytes that make melanin.
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Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer is the cancer of the stomach and is also known as gastric cancer. The stomach is an organ in the digestive tract where food is digested before it moves to the intestines. Stomach cancer usually develops in the lining of the stomach and the most common type of stomach cancer is adenocarcinoma. Stomach cancer could genetic and associated with family history, it is also linked to cases of chronic infection of Helicobacter pylori. This is a type of bacteria associated with chronic gastritis and the development of recurrent peptic ulcers. 
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Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer is the cancer of the kidney. The kidneys are located in the abdomen on either side of the spine and they filter waste from your blood and make urine. Renal cell carcinoma is cancer that forms in the lining of tiny tubules in the kidney and is the most common form of kidney cancer.
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Liver Cancer

Liver cancer is the cancer of the liver. The liver is located on the right side of the abdomen and it's function is to filter and detoxify the blood that circulates the body from toxins, and produces bile essential for digestion. Liver cancer occurs when cancer cells develop in the tissues of the liver.
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Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer among men. The disease occurs when cancer cells form in the prostate, a walnut-sized gland located between the penis and bladder. The prostate is part of the male reproductive system and is responsible for nourishing sperm. Prostate cancer in its early stages is usually localized, but it can spread to other organs if left untreated.
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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the number one cancer among Singaporean women. It usually occurs when harmful (malignant) cells originate from the cells lining the milk ducts and glands. In advanced breast cancer, cancerous cells can spread through the breast to the rest of the body.
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Fallopian Tube Cancer

Fallopian tubes link a woman’s ovaries to the womb and they are responsible for transporting eggs during her childbearing years. Fallopian tube cancer happens when malignant tumors appear in the fallopian tubes. The condition is hard to detect, especially in its early stages, as most of the cancer cells only carry a small percent of high-grade serious cancers (HGSC). However, advanced-stage cancer usually present as HGSC.
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Ovarian Cancer

The ovaries are two female reproductive glands that produce eggs and the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the ovaries multiply without control and form a malignant tumor. The condition have vague symptoms in its early stages but as like most cancers, early detection is key. It is most often associated with fallopian tube cancer as both conditions exhibit similar symptoms.
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Uterine Cancer

Uterine cancer, also known as endometrial cancer, is one of the most common cancers found in a woman’s reproductive system. This happens when healthy cells in the uterus multiply to form a tumor, which in turn becomes malignant. There are two major types of uterine cancer: adenocarcinoma and sarcoma. Adenocarcinoma makes up more than 80% of uterine cancers and it usually develops from cells in the endometrium. Sarcoma develops in the supporting tissues of the uterine glands or in the myometrium, accounting for about 2% to 4% of uterine cancers.
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