Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disorders that affect the entire nervous system. This includes the brain, blood vessels, spinal column, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
Conditions that require neurosurgery may be trauma-related, for example injury to the head and spine where internal bleeding is present. Infection-related cases may be meningitis, which is a bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Degenerative diseases are more common among older patients and include aneurysms and Parkinson's disease.