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Multiple Drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs)

What are MDROs?​

Multiple Drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) are common organisms that have developed resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. MDROs may be acquired in the community and in healthcare facilities.
 

What is MDRO colonisation?

MDRO colonisation refers to MDRO infection that is present in or on the body but does not cause illness. An MDRO coloniser or carrier may carry MDRO without becoming ill but he/she may still transmit the infection to others who are sick. A plastic eye shield will be placed over the operated eye.​​
 

What is MDRO infection?​

MDRO infection occurs when an individual falls ill with MDRO that is present in or on the body. Symptoms of MDRO infections will vary, depending on the infected body part.
 

How does MDRO spread?

MDROs commonly spread through direct contact (mostly by contaminated hands) or by contact with contaminated surfaces in the environment.
 

Who is at risk of a MDRO infection?

In general, healthy people are at low risk of developing MDRO infections. Individuals are more likely to get an infection if they:

  • ​Are aged 65 or older
  • Are using medical devices
  • Have existing illnesses
  • Have previous colonisation with MDROs
  • Have previous prolonged use of antibiotics
  • Have undergone complex surgeries or invasive procedures
  • Have repeated contact with healthcare facilities or prolonged hospitalisation stays
  • Have weak immune system.
     

How is MDRO diagnosed?

MDRO is diagnosed with a culture test of suspected infected areas, blood, nasal passages, urine, stool and wound samples to identify the bacteria.
 

Where can MDRO infections occur?

MDRO infections can occur in any part of the body, including the skin, lungs, urinary tract, bloodstream, surgical and non-surgical wounds.
 

Can MDRO infections be treated?

Yes. However, MDROs can be difficult to treat, depending on the antibiotics that the bacteria are resistant to. Even when the infection is treated, MDROs are often still present and may remain on the skin or in the nose (colonisation).
 

How does the hospital prevent the spread of MDRO?

  • Patients identified to be colonised, infected with MDROs, or meet the criteria for MDRO screening shall be placed on isolation precautions
  • Healthcare workers will wear appropriate Personal Protective Equipment when performing patient care
  • Strict infection control measures are in place to reduce the risk of infection, including hand hygiene protocols, regular environmental cleaning and disinfection.
     

How can patients and visitors prevent the spread of MDROs in the hospital?

  • Inform attending doctor or nurse if there is a known history of MDRO infection
  • Practice good personal hygiene
  • Avoid sharing personal items with other people
  • Clean hands with soap and water or alcohol- based sanitisers, including before and after visiting the patient
  • Avoid sitting or lying on the patient’s bed
  • Avoid visiting the patient if you are unwell
     

What precautions should patients and family members take at home?

  • Take medication accordingly and complete the course of antibiotics as prescribed.
  • Practice good personal hygiene.
  • Avoid sharing personal items with other people.
  • Clean hands regularly with soap and water or alcohol-based sanitisers.
  • Clean the home environment regularly and whenever soiled with body fluids.
  • Resume normal activities only when health conditions permit.​



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