Colorectal Surgery – Farrer Park Hospital
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What is Colorectal Surgery?
​Colorectal Surgery is a specialist field of medicine that deals with diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. The speciality deals with bowel problems such as constipation and defaecation disorders in the field of proctology. It is also well-versed in the surgical aspects of benign conditions such as haemorrhoids (piles), anal fistula and abscesses, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal surgeons also have the expertise to remove Colon and Rectum cancers and perform surveillance colonoscopies. Advancement in surgical equipment and skills has also enabled the development of minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery (keyhole) procedures, which are fast becoming the most commonly used method for bowel resection in Colorectal Surgery. This involves making tiny incisions (buttonhole) on the abdomen, through which laparoscopic instruments are inserted using advanced imaging guidance.
Internal hemorrhoids
Internal hemorrhoids are normal blood vessels found in the inside of the anus. They can become enlarged when you strain to pass motion or during pregnancy. Then, they become painful and start to bleed. There have been cases when internal hemorrhoids can become so enlarged, they extend outside the anal opening.
External hemorrhoids are veins under the skin on the outside of the anus. Occasionally a blood clot can form and may cause severe pain.
An anal fissure is a split or tear in the lining of the anus that can caused by diarrhea or passing out a hard stool. There would be bleeding and intense burning pain after bowel movements.
There are tiny glands with small openings located in the inside of the anus that probably help in the passage of stools. When an opening gets blocked, an infection usually develops and pus will form in an abscess.
The first sign of cancer of the colon and rectum is a polyp. It is a small growth protruding from the lining of the large bowel. Not all polyps start off as cancerous but it could be wise to remove it.
Colitis causes inflammation of the large bowel. There are several types of colitis, and common symptoms are diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and abdominal cramps.
Colorectal cancer is also known as colon cancer, rectal cancer or bowel cancer. Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine. Rectal cancer is cancer of the last portion of the large intestine. Signs and symptoms of both types of cancers may include blood in the stool, change in bowel habits, and loss of weight, and feeling tired for no reason.
​Your doctor will first treat you with medications and creams for internal and external hemorroids. If these are ineffective, a colorectal surgeon could then remove these internal hemorrhoids.
External hemorrhoids can be surgically removed.
Your doctor can recommend an ointment or medication that will relieve the pain in anal fissure. In certain cases, surgery may be required if the tear does not heal.

The treatment you may receive for perianal abscess could be draining the pus, usually with general anesthesia. It is more comfortable for the patient and allows the surgeon to properly visualise the anal canal to check for concomitant fistula.

Not all polyps start off as cancerous but removing them before they grow can prevent them from becoming cancerous.
Colitis could be treated with medications. If these are not effective or if the inflammation is serious, surgery may be required.

Treatment for colorectal cancer is often surgery, sometimes in combination with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Open surgery requires a long incision on the abdomen to remove the cancerous part of the colon and/or rectum. The cut ends are then joined together so that the digestive tract can function again. The less invasive option is Laparoscopic or keyhole surgery. Here the surgeon makes small incisions on the abdomen to remove the cancerous part of the large bowel with the aid of special instruments and a fiber-optic camera that allows the surgeon to see inside the abdomen. The result is smaller incisions, shorter hospital stay and faster recovery. The surgeon could also perform Endoscopic surgery with a scope, a flexible tube with a camera and light at the tip so as to see inside your colon and perform procedures without making major incisions.
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