Gynecological cancers develop in the female reproductive organs, such as the cervix, the vagina, the vulva, the ovaries, the uterus and the fallopian tubes.
Cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix, which is locateed at the lower part of the uterus. Most cervical cancers are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection. Cervical cancer does not present any symptoms in it's early stages and is usually detected when it is too late for treatment.
Vaginal cancer is the cancer of the vagina. This is a rare cancer that can affect the cells that line the vaginal canal. Though rare, vaginal cancer can metastasise to the bone, liver, or lungs.
Vulvar cancer is a rare cancer that affects the vulva, or the outer part of the female genitalia.
Endometrial or uterine cancer is the cancer of the uterus. This cancer starts in the inner lining of the uterus and affects the tissues that line the surface of the organ.
Ovarian cancer is the cancer of the ovaries. The ovaries are small, almond-shaped organs located on either side of the uterus that produce eggs that are released during the menstrual cycle. There are different types of ovarian growths and tumours. Though most of these tumours are benign, some can become malignant and metastasise to the rest of the body.
Fallopian tube cancer is a rare cancer that affects the fallopian tubes, which sit on each side of the womb and are links between the womb and the ovaries.
Peritoneal cancer is another rare form of cancer but can appear as ovarian cancer on initial diagnosis. This cancer develops in the abdominal region instead of the reproductive organs, but can affect the female reproductive system through metastasis.
A breast biopsy is done to determine the presence of breast cancer.
Imaging tests are done with ultrasound or CT scan to check for tumour location and growth.
A pap smear test is done to check for cancerous cells in your cervix.