Bunions are a deformity of the big toe joint and can range from minor bumps or lumps to a severe deformity. Bunions are formed usually as a result of pressure on the big toe. When the big toe is pushed in towards the rest of the toes, the continual pressure on the toe joint forces the joint out of its normal position.
Bunions are usually caused by shoes that do not fit well, especially where there is much tightness in the toe area. The use of high-heel shoes on a regular basis is also a cause. Other risk factors can include injury to the big toe, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis of the knee or hip.
A physical and medical history examination. An X-ray can help check the bone structure
Reviewed by Dr. Anandakumar Vellasamy, Consultant Orthopedic Surgeon, Centre for Foot and Ankle Surgery