Hepatitis A, B, C

What is Hepatitis?

Hepatitis is a condition that causes the swelling of the liver. The liver is an organ in the abdomen that filters waste and is necessary for metabolic function. Hepatitis can be caused by infections, drug abuse, medications, and immune disorders. There are 3 forms of viral hepatitis, hepatitis A, B, and C. 

What is Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A infection causes acute inflammation of the liver, causing it to swell. It lasting for several weeks and leads to lifelong immunity.

The virus is transmitted through:

  • Blood contact, drug use, and sexual contact
  • Consuming contaminated shellfish 
  • Contaminated food and drinks 

What is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B infection is the most common infection of the liver. It leads to immunity as well but may be a long-term infection that may cause serious complications such as cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. 

The virus is mainly found in the blood, as well as in vaginal secretions and semen. The virus is transmitted through:

  • Sharing contaminated injections among drug users
  • Unsafe sexual contact with an infected person
  • Contaminated blood

What is Hepatitis C?

Hepatitis C infection causes chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. The virus is mainly found in the blood and is transmitted through sharing contaminated needles.


  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Dark urine
  • Decreased appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Jaundice (yellowish skin and eyes)
  • Nausea and dizziness
  • Painful joints
  • Pale stools
  • Swelling
  • Tiredness

How is Hepatitis treated?

  • Hepatitis A
    There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A but there are treatment measures that help improve your condition:

    • Avoid drinking alcohol
    • Get plenty of bed rest
    • Increase your fluid intake
    • Practice good personal hygiene
    • Take prescribed medication if your symptoms worsen
  • Hepatitis B
    Treatment of hepatitis B depends on the symptoms and stage of your disease and includes:

    • Anti-viral medication to stop the virus from replicating
    • Medication to ease symptoms
  • Hepatitis C
    Treatment of hepatitis C aims to delay its complications, and these include:

    • Anti-viral medication to stop the virus from replicating
    • Avoid drinking alcohol as it can increase the liver damage
    • Regular screening for liver cancer for hepatitis C carriers, especially those who have liver cirrhosis

We are always happy to help.

Our Specialists

Dr. Robert Lo Su Chun

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Dr. Stephen Chang

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Dr. Lam Mun San

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